Intimidating behavior definition
In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression.
Human aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression, whilst the first is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the second one is characterized by a behavior intended to harm social relations of an individual or a group.
There is also controversy over whether parents should be allowed make their child attend a wilderness therapy program by force, as is often the case.
Apart from the thousands spent on the actual program (around 0/day), some parents pay a teen escort company thousands to ensure their child gets to the program by any means necessary, without the child's consent or foreknowledge.
October 2007 and April 2008, the United States Government Accountability Office convened hearings to address report of widespread and systemic abuse.
Additionally, physical activity alone may improve physical and mental health.
The industry reports that, as with any type of treatment program, abusive situations have been reported and accidental deaths have taken place in some of these programs, but that compared with similar outdoor adventure activities deaths are extremely rare.
These assertions cannot be independently verified due to inadequate regulation, poor monitoring, and a pattern of unreported deaths and state failure to prosecute offenders.
There is no one standardized model for the therapy, since many models of wilderness therapy are reflective of different programs, although most usually contain the following principles: a series of tasks that are increasingly difficult in order to challenge the patient; teamwork activities for working together; the presence of a psychiatrist or therapist as a group leader; and the use of a therapeutic process such as a reflection journal or self-evaluation. Conner of the Mentor Research Institute states that "wilderness therapy programs trace their origins to outdoor survival programs that placed children in a challenging environment where determination, communication and team efforts were outcomes". Given the proliferation of such programs, lax regulation, and absence of research setting uniform standards of care across programs, advocates have called on increased accountability to ensure programs are capable of providing care that is consistent with their marketing claims.
Alternately, some programs are derived from a more ecopsychological perspective, according to the director of the wilderness therapy program at Naropa University, "through contemplative practice and the experiential outdoor classroom, students gain further self-awareness and the ability to respond to whatever arises in the moment." The pioneers in the field of wilderness therapy include Larry D. Sanchez at Brigham Young University; Nelson Chase, Steven Bacon, and others at the Colorado Outward Bound School; Rocky Kimball at Santa Fe Mountain Center and others. One of the major differences between boot camps and wilderness therapy is the underlying philosophical assumptions (wilderness therapy being driven by the philosophy of experiential education and theories of psychology and boot camps being informed by a military model).